Aloewood / Agarwood

Aloewood / Agarwood

Plants Identity

Scientific Name

Aquilaria malaccensis Lam.

Arabic name(s)

Olowah / Oud

English name(s)

Aloewood / Agarwood






Aquilaria Lam.


Aquilaria malaccensis Lam.



Growth form

Aquilaria is a large evergreen tree.

Plant’s Description

Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. is a medium-sized tree of about 30 m in height. The bark is usually dark to pale grey, smooth, entire, becoming finely and irregularly fissured, while the inner bark is usually cream-white, soft, striping in long pieces and glabrous. The wood is light, soft, and usually shows no distinction in colour between sapwood and heartwood (Chakrabarty et al. 1994).

Ecology (Habitat)& distribution

Aloes-wood is typically distributed in the forests of South and Southeast Asia.

Geographic distribution

Plant’s Citations in the Holy Qur’an

The plant is not mentioned in the Holy Qur’an.

Other Citations for the plant in the Holy Qur’an

Other Citations for the plant in the Hadith

Narrated by Abu Huraira: Allah’s Apostle said, “The first group (of people) who will enter Paradise will be (glittering) like the moon when it is full. They will not spit or blow their noses or relieve nature. Their utensils will be of gold and their combs of gold and silver; in their centers the aloe-wood will be used, and their sweat will smell like musk. Everyone of them will have two wives; the marrow of the bones of the wives’ legs will be seen through the flesh out of excessive beauty. They ( i.e. the people of Paradise) will neither have differences nor hatred amongst themselves; their hearts will be as if one heart and they will be glorifying Allah in the morning and in the evening.” Sahih Al Bukhari, book of beginning of creation.

Other Citations for the plant in the Hadith

History of the Plant

Stories about the plant in Holy Qur’an

Stories about the plant in Sunnah

The plant in the Arabic Literature


Did you know?

Functional Uses




Whole plant

Traditional Uses


Medicinal uses

Constituents (Chemical composition)

Side Effects

Other Uses

Cultivation (Agriculture)

Cultivation History

Cultivars and Varieties

Flowering A malaccensis starts to flower and produce fruit at the age of 7-9 years (as reported in the North-west of India) Fruiting Medium sized trees are reported to produce about 1.5 kg of seed during good seed years.

Growth and propagation

October to November

Tree management

- Germination: Under nursery conditions, seeds of Aquilaria spp. germinated rapidly and a relatively high proportion of seed eventually germinated (>50%). Seed should be sown immediately, as it remains viable for only about 1 month. Germination starts after 10 - 12 days and is normally complete after 1 month. - Transplanting: Seedlings are pricked out into containers 40 - 45 days after germination when they are 3 - 5 cm tall, and are kept under shade. They are ready for transplanting when 30 - 35 cm tall and 10 - 12 months old. Transplanting bare-rooted seedlings has been tried successfully in some areas. • Pruning: it’s preferred to usually like 3 times per year to remove the dead branches and maintain the regular shape of the tree through trimming the up normal fast-grown branches. However, agarwood tree grows regularity with no need for intensive pruning scheme. • Supporting: the tree is one of rainforest group, that’s why it grows widely in the forests with no need to support. However, in the cases of planting the agarwood tree in the gardens it needs a support in its first 2 years. According to the long bark during the planting area, triangle support is recommended to resist to strong air and soil loose. - Harvesting: Fruit harvested for seed should be collected when mature but still green. A medium- sized tree produces about 2,000 seeds per year, but seed production may fluctuate greatly between years. - Yield: The best agarwood yields are from trees of 50 years age or more but resin is produced as early as 20 years.

Pests and diseases

Harvesting & Yield


agarwood production in Aquilaria, oud, jinkoh, gaharu, aloeswood, eaglewood, chim-hyang,. (n.d.). Retrieved July 24, 2016, from aquilaria agallocha - Google Search. (n.d.). Retrieved July 27, 2016, from Aquilaria agallocha Roxb. (2007). In Indian Medicinal Plants (pp. 1–1). Springer New York. Aquilaria malaccensis - Useful Tropical Plants. (n.d.). Retrieved July 27, 2016, from Fungal diversity in wounded stems of Aquilaria malaccensis | SpringerLink. (n.d.). Retrieved July 24, 2016, from Lee, S. Y., & Mohamed, R. (2016). The Origin and Domestication of Aquilaria, an Important Agarwood-Producing Genus. In R. MOHAMED (Ed.), Agarwood (pp. 1–20). Springer Singapore. Management and Economic Aspects of Growing Aquilaria agallocha Roxb. in Bangladesh | SpringerLink. (n.d.). Retrieved July 27, 2016, from Saikia, P., Khan, M. L., Saikia, P., & Khan, M. L. (2014). Ecological Features of Cultivated Stands of Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. (Thymelaeaceae), a Vulnerable Tropical Tree Species in Assamese Homegardens, Ecological Features of Cultivated Stands of Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. (Thymelaeaceae), a Vulnerable Tropical Tree Species in Assamese Homegardens. International Journal of Forestry Research, International Journal of Forestry Research, 2014, 2014, e140926., 10.1155/2014/140926 Tang, P. D. W., & Eisenbrand, P. D. G. (1992). Carthamus tinctorius L. In Chinese Drugs of Plant Origin (pp. 267–271). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Yin, Y., Jiao, L., Dong, M., Jiang, X., & Zhang, S. (2016). Wood Resources, Identification, and Utilization of Agarwood in China. In R. MOHAMED (Ed.), Agarwood (pp. 21–38). Springer Singapore.