Ecological Groups

The Qur’an Botanical Garden monitored the plant species that were mentioned by their explicit names in the Noble Qur’an and the Hadith, and divided them into three groups according to the environments and natural habitats in which they grow, and they were recorded with their scientific names, as well as their local names in a list that is considered the first of its kind.

Ecological groups of plants of the Qur’anic Botanic Garden

The Qur’anic Botanic Garden (QBG) displays around 60 types of plants. Of these, 19 are mentioned in the Holy Qur’an, while the others are frequently referred to in the Noble Hadith and the Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH). QBG also displays diverse varieties of dissimilar plants belonging to the same types. Although the diversity of these plants allows for them to be classified according to many differing categories, their native geographical location remains the main basis for classifications, as follows:

 

First: Desert plants

These are the plants that grow wild in desert areas. Therefore, they are planted directly in the places designated for them, without need for any kind of special shading or the like. Among these types are Athl, Sidr, Samar, Aloe Vera, Henna, Arak, andIkhar.

Second: Flora of the Mediterranean region (Temperate environment)

Since the climate of the Mediterranean region ranges from warm to hot, and is characterized by dry summers and winters that range from mild to cold, there is a group of plants within the QBG collection belonging to this geographical region. Many types of these plants can grow well in subtropical areas.This is because the Mediterranean climate represents a particular variation on the subtropical climate, and this feature allows a wide variety of flora to grow in open, natural areas of the garden. Among these types are grapes, figs, olives, mustard, safflower, pomegranate, and others.

Third: Tropical and Subtropical Plants

All plants in this group grow in tropical regions, which are characterized by a warmth equal to room temperature throughout the year, while humidity levels range from low to high. Among these plant types are camphor, sea costus, ginger, oud and others.

List of ecological groups

Acacia

Scientific Name: cacia oerfota (Forssk.) Schweinf.

Arabic Name: العُرفُط

English Name: Acacia

Growth form: Acacia oerfota is a perennial deserty shrub....

Citation in the Quran:

The plant is not mentioned in th...

Citation in the Hadith:

Narrated by ‘Aisha: Allah’s Apostle was fond of honey...

Banana

Scientific Name: Musa X paradisiaca L. (pro sp.)

Arabic Name: الطلْح المنْضُود / المَوْز

English Name: Banana

Growth form: Banana is a large herbal plant....

Citation in the Quran:

Talh is referred to once in the ...

Citation in the Hadith:

Banana is not mentioned in the Hadith.

...

Barley

Scientific Name: Hordeum vulgare L.

Arabic Name: الشَّعِير

English Name: Barley

Growth form: Barley is annual cereal grass....

Citation in the Quran:

The plant is not mentioned in th...

Citation in the Hadith:

Narrated by Ibn Umar: Allah’s Apostle enjoined the paym...

Bitter gourd / Colocynth

Scientific Name: Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad.

Arabic Name: الْحَنْظَل

English Name: Bitter gourd / Colocynth

Growth form: Colocynth is a perennial, procumbent herb....

Citation in the Quran:

The plant is not mentioned in th...

Citation in the Hadith:

Narrated by Abu Musa: The Prophet said, “And the exampl...

Black cumin / Black seeds

Scientific Name: Nigella sativa L.

Arabic Name: الحَبَة السَوْداء

English Name: Black cumin / Black seeds

Growth form: Black cumin is an annual herbaceous erect plant....

Citation in the Quran:

The plant is not mentioned in th...

Citation in the Hadith:

Narrated by Abu Huraira: I heard Allah’s Apostle sa...

Buxus/ Katam hair dye

Scientific Name: Buxus dioica Forssk.

Arabic Name: الكَتَم

English Name: Buxus/ Katam hair dye

Growth form: Katam is an evergreen shrub or small tree....

Citation in the Quran:

The plant is not mentioned in th...

Citation in the Hadith:

Narrated by AbuDharr: The Prophet (Peace and Blessing be ...

Christ thorn

Scientific Name: Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf.

Arabic Name: السِّدْر

English Name: Christ thorn

Growth form: Christ thorn "Sidr" is a shrub, or evergreen tall ...

Citation in the Quran:

Sidr and its derivatives have be...

Citation in the Hadith:

Umm ‘Atiyya reported: the Apostle of Allah (may peace b...

Costus / Crepe ginger

Scientific Name: Cheilocostus speciosus (J. König) C.D. Specht

Arabic Name: القُسْط

English Name: Costus / Crepe ginger

Growth form: Kust root is a tropical perennial herb....

Citation in the Quran:

The plant is not mentioned in th...

Citation in the Hadith:

Narrated by Anas; that he was asked about the wages of th...

Desert thorn

Scientific Name: Astragalus spinosus (Forssk.) Muschl.

Arabic Name: القَتَاد

English Name: Desert thorn

Growth form: Desert thorn ”Qatad” is a perennial extremely ...

Citation in the Quran:

The plant is not mentioned in th...

Citation in the Hadith:

Ibn ‘Abbas reported that the Prophet said: “There wil...

Dyeing Acacia / Gum Arabica tree

Scientific Name: Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile

Arabic Name: القَّرْظْ

English Name: Dyeing Acacia / Gum Arabica tree

Growth form: Dyeing Acacia "Qarz" an evergreen Tree....

Citation in the Quran:

The plant is not mentioned in th...

Citation in the Hadith:

Qarz is mentined in the Hdith of Ibn Abass referring to t...

Garden beet/Beetroot

Scientific Name: Beta vulgaris L.

Arabic Name: السِّلْق

English Name: Garden beet/Beetroot

Growth form: Garden beet is an annual herb....

Citation in the Quran:

The plant is not mentioned in th...

Citation in the Hadith:

Sahl Bin Sad says: “We used to be happy on Fridays, for...

Garden leek

Scientific Name: Allium porrum L.

Arabic Name: الكُرَّاث

English Name: Garden leek

Growth form: Leek is an edible biennial plant....

Citation in the Quran:

The plant is not mentioned in th...

Citation in the Hadith:

Jabir reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) forbade eat...

Ginger/cooking ginger

Scientific Name: Zingiber officinale Roscoe

Arabic Name: الزَّنْجَبيل

English Name: Ginger/cooking ginger

Growth form: Ginger is a perennial herb....

Citation in the Quran:

The word Zanjabil “ginger&...

Citation in the Hadith:

Ginger is not mentioned in the Hadith .

...

Grape

Scientific Name: Vitis vinifera L.

Arabic Name: العِنَب

English Name: Grape

Growth form: Grape is a deciduous climber shrub or tree....

Citation in the Quran:

The word Inab “grape”...

Citation in the Hadith:

Raisins (Zabib); the dried grape is mentioned in Hadith. ...

Henna

Scientific Name: Lawsonia inermis L.

Arabic Name: الْحِنَّاء

English Name: Henna

Growth form: Henna is a shrub or small tree....

Citation in the Quran:

The plant is not mentioned in th...

Citation in the Hadith:

Narrated by AbuDharr: The Prophet (Peace and Blessing be ...

Lentil

Scientific Name: Lens culinaris Medik.

Arabic Name: العَدَس

English Name: Lentil

Growth form: Lentil is annual bushy herb with erect, semierect ...

Citation in the Quran:

Adas is mentioned one time in th...

Citation in the Hadith:

The plant is not mentioned in the Hadith .

...

Mustard

Scientific Name: Brassica nigra (L.) W.D.J. Koch

Arabic Name: الخَرْدل

English Name: Mustard

Growth form: Mustard is an annual herb....

Citation in the Quran:

The word khardal “mustard&...

Citation in the Hadith:

Narrated by Abu Said Al-Khudri: The Prophet said, “When...

Onion

Scientific Name: Allium cepa L.

Arabic Name: البَصَل

English Name: Onion

Growth form: Onion is an annual, bulbous plant....

Citation in the Quran:

Basal or onion is mentioned one ...

Citation in the Hadith:

Narrated by Jabir bin ‘Abdullah: The Prophet said, “W...

Pomegranate

Scientific Name: Punica granatum L.

Arabic Name: الرُمَّان

English Name: Pomegranate

Growth form: Pomegranate is a deciduous shrub or small tree...

Citation in the Quran:

The word Rumman ” pomegran...

Citation in the Hadith:

An-Nawwas b. Sam’an reported that Allah’s Messenger (...

Pumpkin

Scientific Name: Cucurbita maxima Duchesne

Arabic Name: الدُبَّاء

English Name: Pumpkin

Growth form: Pumpkin is an annual, monoecious, trailing or clim...

Citation in the Quran:

The word Duba’a “pumpkin...

Citation in the Hadith:

Anas bin. Malik reported: A tailor invited Allah’s Mess...

Safflower

Scientific Name: Carthamus tinctorius L.

Arabic Name: العُصْفُر

English Name: Safflower

Growth form: Safflower is an annual, herbaceous plant....

Citation in the Quran:

The plant is not mentioned in th...

Citation in the Hadith:

Ibn ‘Umar said “the Messenger of PBUH forbade the maf...

Saffron/Saffron crocus

Scientific Name: Crocus sativus L.

Arabic Name: الزَّعْفَران

English Name: Saffron/Saffron crocus

Growth form: Saffron is a perennial or an annual corm....

Citation in the Quran:

The word Za’afran “s...

Citation in the Hadith:

Narrated by ‘Abdullah bin Umar: A person stood up and a...

Sesame

Scientific Name: Sesamum indicum L.

Arabic Name: السِّمْسِم

English Name: Sesame

Growth form: True Sesame is an annual herbaceous plant....

Citation in the Quran:

The plant is not mentioned in th...

Citation in the Hadith:

Jabir b. ‘Abdullah was sitting near a column narrating ...

Shampoo ginger / Pinecone ginger

Scientific Name: Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Sm.

Arabic Name: الزَّرْنَب

English Name: Shampoo ginger / Pinecone ginger

Growth form: Shampoo ginger is a perennial herb...

Citation in the Quran:

The plant is not mentioned in th...

Citation in the Hadith:

‘A’isha reported that (one day) there sat together el...

Snake cucumber/ hairy cucumber

Scientific Name: Cucumis melo L. subsp. melo var. flexuosus (L.) Naudin

Arabic Name: القِثَّاء

English Name: Snake cucumber/ hairy cucumber

Growth form: Snake cucumber is an annual prostrate plant....

Citation in the Quran:

Qithaa is mentioned one time in ...

Citation in the Hadith:

‘Abdullah b. Ja’far reported: I saw Allah’s Messeng...

Spiny Fruit

Scientific Name: Neurada procumbens L.

Arabic Name: السَّعْدَان

English Name: Spiny Fruit

Growth form: Spiny fruit plant is a desert, annual creeping her...

Citation in the Quran:

The plant is not mentioned in th...

Citation in the Hadith:

Sa’adan has been mentioned in the Hadith described the ...

Sweet basil

Scientific Name: Ocimum basilicum L.

Arabic Name: الرَّيْحَان

English Name: Sweet basil

Growth form: Basil is an evergreen herbaceous perennial plant....

Citation in the Quran:

The word Ar-Rayhan “basil&...

Citation in the Hadith:

Narrated by Abu Musa: The Prophet said, “and the exampl...

Sweet flag/Calamus

Scientific Name: Acorus calamus L.

Arabic Name: الذَّريرَة

English Name: Sweet flag/Calamus

Growth form: Sweet flag is a semi-aquatic herbaceous plant....

Citation in the Quran:

The plant is not mentioned in th...

Citation in the Hadith:

Narrated by ‘Aisha; during the last Pilgrimage Hajjat-a...

Tamarisk

Scientific Name: Tamarix aphylla (L.) H. Karst.

Arabic Name: الأثْل / الطَرْفاء

English Name: Tamarisk

Growth form: Tamarisk is an evergreen shrub or tree....

Citation in the Quran:

The word Athl “Tamarisk...

Citation in the Hadith:

Narrated by Abu Hazim: Some men came to Sahl bin Sad to a...

Umbrella thorn

Scientific Name: Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne

Arabic Name: السَّمُر

English Name: Umbrella thorn

Growth form: Umbrella thorn is an armed desert tree or shrub....

Citation in the Quran:

The name of the plant is not men...

Citation in the Hadith:

Narrated Jubair bin Mutim:That while he was with Allahs A...

Watermelon

Scientific Name: Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai

Arabic Name: البِطِيخ

English Name: Watermelon

Growth form: Watermelon is an annual trailing, vine-like flower...

Citation in the Quran:

The plant is not mentioned in th...

Citation in the Hadith:

Narrated by Aisha, Ummul Mu’minin: The Apostle of Allah...

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