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An overview of the most famous botanical terms and materials for daily life in the era of prophethood and the places mentioned in the Holy Qur’an and Hadith
The botanical world, including plants, their growth and fruits, has appeared many times in various A’yat (verses) of the Holy Qur’an. Plants are not merely referred to for the purpose of entreating the blessings of God, but there are mentioned in A’yat (verses) which concern the process of creation, procreation, and resurrection, as well as in those that exhort mankind to scrutinize, contemplate, reason, and reflect. They are also appear in A’yat (verses) which refute the false claim of the unbelievers with regard to Allah’s power to procreate and to re-new life from that which is dead, and to restore man to life after death.
The Prophet Muhammad’s Hadith& Sunnah (sayings and the traditions of the Prophet Muhammad Pace& blessing be upon him (PBUH)) mentioned many plants in different occasions and serving various objectives.
The Botanical terms in the Holy Qur’an has discussed a number of issues concerning with the existence of plant life which may not been understood by some people to this day. In this paper we will focus on the definition of some botanical terms mentioned in the Holy Qur’an and from botanic and Arabic language perspectives.
The Botanical terms are those words or expressions relating to plants and/or habitats and mentioned in the Holy Qur’an and Hadith.
The Botanical terms in the Holy Qur’an and Hadith may donate to plants’ names, General botanical terminologies, life forms, plants organs, Genetic/ Physiological Phenomenon and/or Spatial/ Environment element.
With the exception of plant names, more than 82 Botanical terms has been mentioned in the Holy Quran. Also, about 60 botanical has been recorded in the Hadith. These figures will be increased with deep research on the verses of the Holy Quran and Hadith.
To Accurate and profound understanding of the meanings of the verses of the Quran and Hadith
It Call for consideration and insight into the creatures of Allah.
Deep understanding of the meanings of plant terminology mentioned in the Holy Qur’an and Sunnah
Study of the Botanical terms is a good entrance to study Botany, simplified science especially for students and non-specialists in Botany.
The Botanical terms in the Holy Qur’an and Hadith are often associated with simile, parables, ethics, recipes and behaviors which are needed to humanity. So studying those terms has a major role in highlighting such ethics for the individual and society.
Abb is the fodder or fresh or dried herbs, which is a weed for grazing, mowing or forage. The word Abb is used to describe the growth of plants from the soil. Abb include herbs that grow in diverse environments, such as deserts, plains, valleys and forests, and which are eaten by livestock and are a major source of nutrition. Just as man depends on some plants as a source of nutrition, he also depends on the meat of animals that feed on the .... MORE
The word Afnan is mentioned in the Noble Qur’an when describing Heaven in the noble verse, “having to Afnan”, which scholars interpreted as branches of all kinds, varieties and colors. Some commentators said that “Afnan” means the intertwining branches or the ends of the branches of a tree, or the branches that extend from the tree’s stalk and produce leaves and fruits. From it the fruits are reaped and the believers enjoy their sh.... MORE
Ahwa: A word describing a plant if it dies and dries up for a long time, as it becomes dark and dry. The stages of plant’s life begin with taking out the pasture, then growth and flowering after that it dries up and becomes dark in color with age. The word “Ahwa” means dry and dark in color with age.
The term “Aika” refers to dense, intertwining trees of one or more species of plants that grow together in a single habitat. The Aika may refer to a group of sidr trees, arak tree, athl (tamarisk tree), or palm trees. The Aika (grove) is found in the Arabian Peninsula in the lowlands and valleys. It is called ghaida as well, because water and soil are deposited in it.
A sheath is the outer cover around the male and female flowers of a date palm. It has a woody texture to protect the flowers and then carry them after they stem out of it. Female flowers grow into clusters carrying green and ripe palm fruits. When those clusters dry, they turn into stalks.
It means the edges or threads that come from the garment. In botanical science, these small needle leaves are a specific type of leaves for some plants such as tamarins, conifers, and cypress trees.
”Sinu” means conformity or synonimity. And in the field of botany, this term refers to branches that belong to same plant. The basic meaning of the word “Sinwan” refers to two or more trees that share the same root, which means that they have identical features. Non-Sinu are the palms and individual plants with separate origins that sprout from different roots.
According to the Glorious Quran, the word refers to the bran that covers wheat seeds. Husk turns into ash after wheat seeds are harvested. The word occurs in the Glorious Quran in the incident of Ashaab Al-Feel (People of the Elephant). The reference means to symbolize Allah’s punishment, as He demolished the assaulters utterly that they became like crushed stalk and straw.
A door is the entrance of any place. It is where people get into their homes. Arabs used to make doors from the Christ’s thorn jujube tree (ziziphus spina-christi). Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) prohibited the cutting of such trees because they used to provide shady shelters for travelers on their way and for animals. In the Arabian Peninsula, doors were made of tamarix, irar and other desert trees. Doors have shutters, and in the past they used t.... MORE
The term “Bagl’ refers to the herbs or raw, fresh fruits that a person can eat directly, and leguminous plants are annual, so they only live for a few months a year. In botany, the word “Bagl” is used for the family of legumes, and it bears fruits known as pulses and opens by two longitudinal valves, such as those found in the broad bean or green bean, but the first meaning is the most comprehensive because it includes .... MORE
Cotton is a plant that sprouts out white fibers from which clothes are made. Corrosive is one of the names of cotton, which is furs. In the hadith: That he was shrouded in three Yemeni Korsof; means cotton. A person who is Takarsaf means got confused.
Most commentators agree that the term “Duhn” means olive oil when it is mentioned in the Holy Quran as well as in the hadith. Botanically, oil is all that is filtered from plants, especially seeds and fruits. Oils are organic materials that are extracted from various parts of plants and contain large amounts of energy.
The fruit is the edible part of the plant. This is an indication that not all of the crop is a fruit while all fruit is a crop or fruits. The term “Fakiheen”, which is derived from “Fakiha” (fruit), refers to a person’s happiness and enjoyment.
Thread: a small, thin robe in the cleft of a palm seed. This term, as well as the two terms above, were used in the Glorious Quran as symbols of tiny things.
Gardens are orchards in which fruit trees or ornamental trees are grown, which are cultivated and surrounded by a fence, a wall, or some other means that encircle them. Others define a garden as a plot of land with palms or other trees, or it may be defined as any area that is cultivated, and any fenced orchard; If not, then it is not described as a garden.
A garden with dense trees that grow alongside each other is described as gulb, and a tree is described as gulp if it is thick. The term gulb means that the plant or grass has grown fully and dense.
The Hantam is plural, and its singular is Hantama. The term “Hantam” refers to the jars made of clay painted green to dark green. This type of containers was used to transport wines to Medina. With the advent of Islam, the preparation of non-alcoholic drinks in such jars was prohibited, because it was easy to convert them to alcohol by their paints. The term Hantam has also been expanded to include all the types of ceramic jars. Mu.... MORE
Plowing is a term related to agriculture and cultivation, and it has several meanings in the Holy Quran. The word plow refers to cultivating the land in preparation for planting and sowing seeds. This process is necessary to produce a good crop. It results in a series of benefits such as aeration of the soil, facilitating irrigation, enabling the roots to fix themselves in the soil after germination, and improving the area between the water an.... MORE
A generic term for all the thorny round fruits of desert terrestrial annual herbaceous plants. This type of thorny produce sticks to cattle hair and people’s feet or shoes when they walk by it. Its Arabic name can be changed into a verb to refer to something that develops thorny ends. Most of the plants that belong to this family are creeping plants with their roots developing along the ground. Galingale is a round plant of this family with .... MORE
Dry wood used to fuel fire. The Arabic word hattaab is the person who collects firewood from dry plants and branches. It was a known job in desert areas and forests. In the Arabian Peninsula and other desert regions get firewood from the branches of thorny trees, e.g. salam (Vachellia flava) and samur (Vachellia Tortilis) which are collected for fuel.
Habla is the fruit of salam, siyal and tamarind. It is a puffed fruit with small, black seed as lentil, and it was said: Hubla is the fruit of Acacia ehrenbergiana, seyal, Vachellia tortilis. It is a puffed fruit with small black seeds.
The word is derived from katan, which means thickness and greasiness. It refers to the flaxseeds which are so rich in oil that they may turn rancid when left for a while. Flax is annual plant of the Linaceae family. Flaxseeds are considered to have a high nutritional value, as they contain a huge amount of carbohydrates, proteins, and oils.
Leef in the palm is the coarse brown fiber that grows around the fronds of the palm head. When the palm tree is trimmed, the fiber is cut with palm leaves, and ropes are made from it. When a plant gets Leef: Means its fiber is thickened. Masad is a rope of fiber, wicker, hair or coarse wool. In the interpretation: “In her neck is a rope from Masad” Mujahid and Urwa said: “From Masad fire”
A generic term for all the spiny, round fruits of the desert terrestrial annuals. This type of thorn fruit gets stuck to cattle hair, human feet, or soles while walking alongside it. When it is said the farm has hasaked, means its thorns have grown. Most of these types of plants that contain thorns are creeping plants whose branches extend across the ground. Monkey thorn trees (Sa’adan) are circular thorns with a smooth .... MORE
“Micropyle: A minute opening in the dorsal side of a palm seed. It serves as a link between the seed and the outer world, since it allows water into the internal part of the seed to provide nutrition to the embryo.
Endocarp: The thin layer that surrounds a palm seed. Because of its membranous nature, it is usually eaten along with the fruit. “
The Arabic word, Qinwaan, is the plural of Qinw. They are the flowery clusters of palm trees with palm fruits, both ripening and at the early stages of ripening. The Qur’anic phrase qinwaanun daaniyah means fruits hanging low. The adjective qinwaa’ means tall
The little offshoot of a plant or a palm tree. The process of shooting is cited in the Quran as Allah, Glory is to Him, says: “as a plant which produces its offshoots”. The Arabic verb shata’a refers to a plant that produces its offshoots. The Arabic term shat’u ash-shajar means those shoots that spring around the stem of a tree, from the same parent shoot. Its plural form is ashtaa’ and the verb ashta’a is used to mean a tree shoo.... MORE
The spike of wheat, barley, rice and all plants that belong to the gramineae family. It is where grains cluster in a unique structure. Each grain is protected by husks and topped by a thorn. The Arabic word for the ear of a plant is mentioned in the Glorious Quran to symbolize the multiplication of reward. From only one seed, tens of spikes come out, each bearing loads of grains. Likewise, Allah, Glory is to Him, offers abundant reward for who.... MORE
The Arabic words sundooq, zondooq, and sundooq mean a container where things can be stored. It is a synonym of the word khizaanah, which means a locker. The word makhzan refers to the place where things are stored. Herb retailers used to keep their commodities in leather bags.
In a palm tree, pollen refers to the anther that bears emerging palm fruits, male and female. It is composed of several intertwined male and female florets, hanging along a brown wooden stick that develops as the palm tree starts producing its flowers. When the anther opens, it shows all baby florets. Botanists use the term androecium to refer to all the male part of a plant, which contains pollen.
It is a grass that grows on mountains. It starts green and then turns white as it dries up. It has rough panicles, wher inflorescence of the plant takes place. It belongs to the Gramineae family which is known for being aromatic and white for adult plants. Stipagrostis hirtigluma can be found in stone valleys, and the Arabic word was mentioned by Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).
A stalk is a wooden handle (that botanists call a raceme) that carries female flowers, and therefore the palm fruits at different phases of growth and ripening. As the stalk is full of fruits, it is called a cluster, but once the fruits are harvested, it dries up, develops a hard texture, and takes on the shape of a crescent. That is where the Quranic comparison of the crescent to an old stalk comes from.